Sobanukirwa Indwara Tifoyide(typhoid) Nuburyo wayirinda

Sobanukirwa Indwara Tifoyide(typhoid) Nuburyo wayirinda

Tifoyide (Typhoid) ubusanzwe izwi ku izina rya “typhoid fever” cyangwa se “enteric fever” mu ndimi z’amahanga. Ni indwara iterwa na Mikorobe(microbe) yo mu bwoko bwa Bagiteri(becteria) yitwa Salmonella typhi.

Iyi ndwara ahanini iterwa n’isuku nke, yandura binyuze mu kurya ibiryo cyangwa kunywa ibinyobwa byandujwe n’izi mikorobe zituruka mu myanda yo mu bwiherero igihe umuntu yavuyeyo ntakarabe intoki, kurya ibiribwa byogeshejwe amazi yanduye , cyangwa gusuhuzanya hagati y’abantu babiri umwe afite intoki zanduye.

Iyi mikorobe(Salmonella typhi) ishobora gukwirakwizwa n’amazi yanduye biturutse ku bandi bantu baba barwaye iyi ndwara ya Tifoyide. Bashobora kuyitumamo cyangwa bakayihagarikamo bityo undi muntu yayanywa cyangwa akayakoresha ibindi bintu ko kuyogesha amasahani, ibiribwa, n’ibindi na we akaba arayanduye.

Ibimenyetso by’iyi ndwara bigaragara nyuma y’igihe kiri hagati y’icyumweru kimwe kugeza ku byumweru bibiri umuntu ayanduye cyangwa akaba yageza no ku byumweru bitatu bitewe n’ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri we.

Bimwe mu bimenyetso by’iyi ndwara harimo kugira umuriro mwinshi ku gipimo cya dogere mirongo ine (40oC), gucika intege, kugira inkorora, kubabara mu gifu, kubabara mu muhogo, kubura ubushake bwo kurya(appétit), kubabara umutwe, kwituma impatwe n’ibindi.

Usibye ibi bimenyetso bigaragara vuba nyuma yo kwandura iyi ndwara, hari n’ibindi biboneka bitinze ku muntu ufite iyi ndwara nko gucibwamo bikabije, kurwara umusonga, guta ubwenge, kuva imyuna, kuzana utudomo duto dufite ibara ry’iroza(rose) ku gituza ndetse ibi bigakurikirwa no kubyimba k’umwijima n’urwagashya.

Iyo umurwayi arembye cyane agaragaza kwiheba, ndetse rimwe na rimwe mu mwanda yitumye hakazamo amaraso bitewe n’uko tumwe mu dukoko dutera iyi ndwara tuba twatangiye gupfa kubera ubwinshi bwatwo mu mubiri, hanyuma mu gupfa kwatwo tukavubura uburozi “endotoxine” aribwo butuma amara atoboka kimwe n’ibindi bice byo mu nda.

Tifoyide ni indwara ivurwa igakira igihe hakurikijwe amabwiriza n’inama za muganga.
Iyi ndwara ya Tifoyide iravurwa igakira hakoreshejwe imiti ikorwa hifashishijwe mikorobe hagamijwe kwica izindi mikorobe(antibiotics) nka Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Cephalosporin n’indi.

Hari kandi ubwoko bw’imiti bushobora kwirukana ibimenyetso by’iyi ndwara mu cyumweru kimwe, gusa ibi ntibivuze ko uba wakize. Ugomba gukomeza gufata imiti ukurikije amabwiriza wahawe na muganga.

Ku barwayi barembye cyane iyi miti bashobora kuyifatana n’indi yo mu bwoko bwa “Glucocorticoids” ifasha ibice by’umubiri gukora neza akazi kabyo nka “Dexamethasone” kugira ngo umurwayi ashobore gukira vuba kandi neza.
Umurwayi wa Tifoyide yoroherwa mu byumweru bibiri kugeza kuri bine ari gufata imiti mu gihe yakurikije amabwiriza yahawe na muganga. Gusa Umuntu ukirutse iyi ndwara ashobora gukomeza kwanduza abandi mu gihe cy’iminsi 7 kugeza ku munsi 10, cyangwa ku mezi atatu iyo ativuje neza.

Mu gihe iyi ndwara itavuwe, ishobora gutera ingorane zikomeye zirimo kuva amaraso mu mara no gutoboka kwayo (perforation intestinale), kwangirika kw’impyiko cyangwa igice kirinda ubwonko(menengitis), amagufwa, ibice by’umutima, imyanya myibarukiro, indwara y’umwijima n’ibindi, ibi bikaba byakwica umurwayi mu gihe gito cyangwa bikamukururira ubumuga buhoraho.

Abantu barenga 20% by’abandura iyi ndwara barapfa iyo batavuwe neza kandi ku gihe nkuko bigaragazwa mu mibare ishyirwa ahagaragara n’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku buzima ku Isi (OMS).

Mu kwirinda iyi ndwara n’ikwirakwizwa ryayo, ni ngombwa gukoresha amazi meza no kuyobora ayakoreshejwe ahabugenewe kugira ngo hakumirwe umwanda kuko ari ubwororokero bw’agakoko gatera iyo ndwara.

Ikingira ryayo na ryo ni ngombwa nk’ahantu hahurira abantu benshi nko ku mashuri, muri za gereza, mu bakozi bo mu bitaro cyangwa aberekeza mu bihugu birimo iyo ndwara, hagamijwe kwirinda ko yakomeza guhitana abantu.

Urukingo rw’iyi ndwara rushobora gutangwa mu buryo bw’ibinini cyangwa rugaterwa mu rushinge, umwanzuro ufatwa na muganga hagendewe ku kigero umuntu arimo. Gusa gukingirwa ntibiba bivuze ko wirinze burundu iyi ndwara kuko ibi bitanga icyizere cya 50%, bityo ukaba ushobora kuyandura igihe icyaricyo cyose amabwiriza yo kugira isuku atakurikijwe.

OMS igaragaza ko umubare w’impfu ushobora kugabanuka zikava ku 10% zikagera nko kuri 1% mu gihe isuku yaba yitaweho ku buryo buhagije na buri muryango.

Ni ngombwa kandi kunywa amazi atetse, cyangwa asukuye ku bundi buryo, gukaraba intoki buri gihe umuntu avuye mu bwiherero, mbere yo gufata amafunguro ndetse na nyuma yaho; abantu bakabungabunga amasoko y’amazi n’imiyoboro anyuramo igakorerwa isuku ku buryo buhoraho, kugirira imisarane isuku, kwitwararika isuku y’ibiribwa haba mu kubitegura no kubiteka.
Kwirinda kurya ibiribwa cyangwa ibinyobwa bya make bicuruzizwa ku muhanda, ngo nacyo ni kimwe mu buryo bwakwifashishwa mu kwirinda iyi ndwara, aya kandi akaba ari nayo mabwiriza akurikizwa mu kwirinda izindi ndwara nazo zituruka ku isuku nke nka Kolera(Cholera) n’indwara y’umwijima wo mu bwoko bwa A(hépatite A).

Nubwo inama igirwa abantu ari ukwita ku isuku, ni ngombwa no kujya kwa muganga kuko indwara zemezwa burundu ko ari zo iyo zapimwe, zikaba ari na bwo zikira ku buryo bwizewe.

Abarwayi bagera ku 10% bativuje bakomeza kugira uruhare mu iyororoka ry’iyi ndwara ku buryo mu gihe kiri hagati y’amezi abiri n’atatu abantu bari hagati ya 2% na 5% bakomeza kuba batagaragaraho uburwayi bw’iyi ndwara ariko bitabujije ko baba bayanduza abandi, bikaba byanatuma hapfa abantu ku kigereranyo cya 30% iyo nta kwivuza kubayeho.

Ese Tifoyide hari aho ihurira na Malariya?

Abantu benshi bakunze kwitiranya izi ndwara zombi kubera ko hari aho zijya gusa mu kugaragaza ibimenyetso, ariko ziratandukanye bidasubirwaho.

Malariya iterwa no kurumwa n’umubu w’ingore witwa “anophele femelle” mu gihe Tifoyide iterwa na mikorobe yitwa “salmonella typhi” nkuko twabibonye.

Izi ndwara kandi nubwo hari ibimenyetso bimwe na bimwe zihuriyeho ariko uburyo biza buratandukanye. Umuntu urwaye Malariya agira ibimenyesto birimo kuruka, kugira iseseme, gutengurwa bikurikirwa no gusesa urumeza ndetse n’umuriro mu gihe ku ikubitiro umurwayi wa Tifoyide bitangira ababara mu nda, cyane cyane mu gifu ndetse bigakurikirwa no gucika intege bikabije hamwe n’ibindi bimenyetso twavuze. Imiti ivura izi ndwara n’uburyo bwo kuzirinda nabwo buratandukanye.

Kugeza ubu OMS igaragaza ko Tifoyide yibasiye abaturage b’Isi babarirwa hagati ya miliyoni cuni n’isheshatu(16,000,000) na miliyoni mirongo itatu n’eshanu(35,000,000) mu gihe buri mwaka ihitana abarenga bihumbi Magana abiri.

Iyi ndwara kandi ikunze kugaragara cyane ku mugabane wa Aziya, Amerika y’epfo ndetse na Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara ari nayo u Rwanda ruherereyemo

 

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Andika Icyo Ubivuga Ho